The Lipica Stud Farm is the cradle of all Lipizzan horses in the world. Nowadays it is one of the most beautiful cultural and historical monuments of the Republic of Slovenia, its rich history reaching back to the year of 1580.
The Lipizzan breed as known today was fully developed in the time of Maria Theresa of Austria. During the Napoleonic wars, the stud farm was relocated to Székesfehérvár. In 1802, an earthquake struck Lipica, killing large numbers of horses. The stud farm was relocated to Đakovo in 1805, to Pecica in 1809, to Laxenburg during the First World War, and then to Kladruby nad Labem.
After the First World War, when Lipica was awarded to Italy, most of the horses were returned to Lipica. On 16 October 1943, the stud farm and 178 horses were relocated to Hostouň. After the Second World War, the farm had only 11 horses; all of the others had been confiscated by the Germans during the war. In the 1960s, Lipica was opened to tourists and new development began. In 1996, Lipica became a public institution that is owned by the Republic of Slovenia and has made significant progress since then.
The Stud Farm Lipica breeds the Lipizzan horses in a traditional tested way. Stallions placed in stables in individual enclosed stalls are trained regularly. Broodmares are placed in a joint stable, breeding is free.
Immediately after foaling mares with foals are placed in enclosed stalls for 10 to 14 days thus ensuring them the necessary peace and satisfactory control over the health state of the mother and the foal in the post-natal period. After this period mares with foals return to the joint stable. Breeding is combined – on pastures and in the stable. In the pasture season the entire herd of broodmares is on pastures during the day, whereas in winter, they are moved to arranged places for running when the conditions do not enable pasturing.
The stud farm now also includes a hotel and leisure complex with a golf course, as well as the Lipikum Museum dedicated to various aspects of the stud and the Lipizzan breed, including guided tours of the stud farm.